Glass fiber is an essential material for the composition of glass fiber tubes. This section introduces the related terms of glass fiber.
【Artificial Glass Fiber】
It refers to artificially melting the melt by external force, stretching and cooling, and hardening into a fibrous unit of amorphous structure. It is usually a general term for fiberglass and mineral wool. Also included in the broadest sense are man-made elemental glass fibers, plexiglass fibers, and other inorganic glass fibers.
An artificial inorganic fiber. Use natural ore such as quartz sand, limestone, self-cloud stone, kaolin, pyrophyllite, etc., together with other chemical raw materials such as soda ash, acidity (also can be replaced by alkali, containing natural ore), etc., into glass, In the molten state, it is drawn, blown or twisted into a very fine fibrous material by external force. According to its composition and properties, it can be divided into non-alkali glass fiber (including non-stretched raw glass fiber), medium alkali glass fiber, high alkali glass fiber and special glass fiber; according to its form, it can be divided into continuous glass fiber and fixed length fiberglass. And glass wool; according to the production method, there are basically two types: one is to make the molten glass directly into the fiber, and the other is to make the molten glass into a ball, a rod or a block, and then use it as a raw material, and use various heating methods. After remelting, it is made into fibers. The basic properties of glass fiber are: non-combustible, corrosion-resistant, high-temperature resistant, low hygroscopicity, small elongation, high tensile strength, good chemical stability, good electrical insulation and thermal insulation properties, and poor flexibility and folding resistance. Due to the different glass composition, the performance of one aspect can be more prominent. It can be made into various forms of products, such as yarn, wool yarn, cloth, tape, circular cloth, mat, felt, board, shell and so on. It can be used as electrical insulation materials, filter materials, heat insulation, sound absorption, shock absorption materials, anti-corrosion materials, moisture-proof materials, etc.; and it can be used as a reinforcing material to make composite materials with various organic or inorganic materials, such as glass fiber reinforced thermosetting plastics. (Glass steel), glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics and reinforced rubber products, glass fiber reinforced inorganic cementitious materials such as reinforced plaster and cement; organic coating treatment can also be used to improve its flexibility, making various soft products such as packaging cloth, Screens, curtains, wall coverings, tarpaulins, architectural membranes and special protective equipment. These products are widely used in industrial, agricultural, construction and civil applications. And because it has some excellent properties that other materials do not have, it has become an indispensable material in the military industry.
[Continuous glass fiber]
A large category classified by fiberglass morphology. When the molten high-temperature viscous glass liquid flows out of the pupil, it is drawn into an infinitely long glass fiber by an external force. Continuous glass fibers have different thicknesses and their uses are different. Generally, fibers of 3 -9 μm in diameter are woven into various textile products, such as cloth, belts, sleeves, etc., which are often referred to as textile-type glass fibers because they are often subjected to textile processing; they are made of fibers having a diameter of 10 -24 μm. It is a reinforcing material such as roving, roving, chopped strand, chopped strand mat. Therefore, it is also called enhanced glass fiber.
[fixed length fiberglass]
A large category classified by fiberglass morphology. It is a glass fiber with a limited length, also called long cotton. There are many production methods, such as the blowing method and the rolling method. The length of the fixed length fiber is not very uniform. It can be made into a yarn and processed into a fabric, or it can be made into a thin felt or processed into a product, and used as a waterproof material, a filter material, and a heat insulating material.
Also known as alkali-free glass fiber. A continuous glass fiber drawn from an alkali-free glass containing 0% to 2% of an alkali metal oxide. The usual composition range is: SiO2 53% -55%, A12 O3 13% -16%, CaO16% – 22%, MgO 0% -5%, B2 O34% -9%, Na2 O <2%, Fe2 O3 < 0.4%, TiO2 <2.5%, F2 <1%. The melting temperature is about 1560 -1580 ° C, the drawing temperature is about 1200 -1240 ° C, and the wire drawing process performance is good. The fiber has the characteristics of good electrical insulation performance, high mechanical strength, good water resistance, and the like, but the acid resistance is poor. It is suitable for reinforcing materials for electrical insulating materials, plastics and rubber products.
It is a type of fiberglass that does not contain B2 O3 and F2. Since 1970, due to the increasing emphasis on environmental effects, and in order to improve the chemical and mechanical properties of glass, many changes have been made to the composition of E glass: reducing the content of B2 O3 and F2 without even using it, adding TiO2, ZnO, O-CR glass fibers, glazed glass fibers, unbonded glass fibers, and Advantex@ glass fibers have appeared in oxides such as SrO and Li2O. These fibers have good electrical and chemical stability while improving the mechanical properties of the fibers and making them more environmentally friendly.
[C glass fiber]
Also known as chemically resistant glass fiber. It has high chemical stability and better acid resistance and weather resistance than alkali-free glass fiber. The composition range of C glass is: SiO2 64% -66%, A12 O3 4% -5%, CaO13% -14%, MgO3% -4%, B2 O3 4% -6%, Na2 O+K2 O3% -10% , Fe2 O3 <0.5%. Suitable for battery sleeves, acid-resistant filter materials, and surface felts for chemically resistant glass fiber reinforced plastic products.
[Medium Alkali Fiberglass]
A fiber made of a medium alkali glass containing about 12% of an alkali metal oxide is used. The composition range of China’s medium alkali glass is: SiO2 64% – 68%, A12 O3 4% -8%, CaO 9% -12%, MgO 3% -5%, Na2 O+K2 O10% -12%, B2 O3 0% -3%, Fe2 O3 <0.4%. The melting temperature is 1530 -1540 °C and the drawing temperature is 1160 -1200 °C. The fiber has good acid resistance, but the mechanical strength is lower than that of the alkali-free glass fiber, and is suitable for use as an acid filter cloth, a latex cloth substrate, a window material substrate, and the like. It can also be used as a reinforcing material for glass fiber reinforced plastics and rubber products that are not critical to electrical performance and strength. Because its acid resistance is no less than C glass fiber, it is included in the C glass category in China’s product code standard.
[A glass fiber]
SiO2 71% -73%， A12 O3 0.5% -3%，CaO6% -10%，MgO3% -5%，Na2 O+ K2 O14% -17%，Fe2 O3 <0.4%。
A fiber made of a high alkali glass containing 14% or more of an alkali metal oxide. Its composition range is:
SiO2 71% -73%, A12 O3 0.5% -3%, CaO6% -10%, MgO3% -5%, Na2O+K2O14%-17%, Fe2O3 <0.4%. Due to the high alkali content, it is also called high alkali glass fiber.
The fiber is not as water-resistant and mechanically strong as alkali-free and medium-alkali glass fibers, but has good acid resistance. The mat can be used as a battery separator, a substrate for asphalt linoleum, and a heat insulating material. Its continuous fiber woven pipe wraps. The drawing temperature is low, and the flat glass scrap can be used, and the cost is low. In China, this kind of glass fiber is often used in clay vortex drawing, but this drawing process has been eliminated by the government in 1995.
[S glass fiber]
Also known as high-strength glass fiber, it belongs to SiO-AlO-MgO ternary oxide system. The strength of the monofilament is generally more than 30% higher than that of the alkali-free glass fiber. The reinforced plastic is made to have a tensile strength of 30% to 40% and an elastic modulus of 10% to 20%, which is made of an alkali-free fiber. S -2 in the United States is a typical component of S glass and consists of SiO265%, A12 O325%, and MgO10%. Such glass melting temperature and crystallization upper limit temperature are higher than alkali-free, medium-alkali glass, crystallization rate is fast, and fiber forming temperature is high. It is mainly used for glass fiber reinforced plastic products and national defense sciences with high strength requirements.
[R glass fiber]
R glass fiber is the French company’s glass fiber product code, which is a high mechanical strength glass fiber. The strength of monofilament is generally 30% higher than that of alkali-free glass fiber. The reinforced plastic produced can be increased by 30% – 40% and the modulus of elasticity by 10% – 20% compared to the alkali-free fiber. France R glass fiber is SiO2 -A12 O3 -CaO-MgO quaternary oxide system, does not contain oxidation, the typical composition is SiO2 58% -60%, A12 O3 23.5% -25.5%, CaO+MgO14%-17% The composition, in addition to mechanical properties, has good heat resistance and chemical stability compared to alkali-free glass fibers.
[M glass fiber]
Also known as high elastic modulus glass fiber, referred to as high modulus glass fiber. The reinforced plastic made of the same has a modulus of elasticity of more than 30% and a tensile strength of 5% to -30%. Most of these glass components are in the magnesium-aluminum-silicon system glass, and some oxides such as BeO, ZrO2, TiO2, rare earth oxide and the like which increase the modulus of elasticity and improve the physicochemical properties are added. Compared with the alkali-free, medium-alkali glass melting temperature and the crystallization upper limit temperature, the crystallization rate is fast, so the fiber forming temperature is high. It is mainly used in glass fiber reinforced plastic products and defense sciences that require high modulus of elasticity.
Also known as alkali-resistant glass fiber. It is an alkali-resistant solution, especially a glass fiber that is resistant to attack by a free solution of free Ca(OH)2. Mainly used as a reinforcing material for cement products. The more typical alkali-resistant composition belongs to the sodium silicate glass system with high oxidation content and high oxidation content. Melting and drawing temperatures are high. For example, the British product name “Cem-Fil” is a composition of glass fiber: composed of SiO2 71%, A12 O3 1%, zrO2 16%, Na2 O11%, Li2 Ol%, and the drawing temperature is above 1400 C. These fibers are used to replace asbestos, steel bars, slabs, corrugated tiles and other reinforced cement products. Light weight, high strength and good impact resistance.
[D glass fiber]
Also known as low dielectric glass fiber. The glass fiber drawn from low dielectric glass has a lower dielectric constant and lower dielectric loss than E glass fiber, and is composed of high tensile high silica glass, which is suitable for manufacturing electronic components and radomes.
[High Silica Glass Fiber]
Contains more than 95% SiO2. It is obtained by sintering and extracting the silicate glass fiber by acid extraction. This fiber has low strength, but can withstand 900 C for a long time and 1200 C for short-term. It is an excellent ablation material and heat-insulating material with high temperature resistance.
Glass fiber drawn from quartz glass containing more than 99% SiO2. This fiber strength and high temperature resistance are superior to high silica glass fibers.
Glass fiber drawn from natural basalt. It has good heat resistance, acid resistance and alkali resistance, and has higher strength and higher modulus of elasticity than ordinary E glass fiber. It is usually used as a reinforcing material or insulation material with special requirements, and it can also be used as a cement product for some asbestos.
[radiation resistant electrically insulating glass fiber]
A glass fiber that combines both radiation resistance and high insulation properties. It belongs to calcium aluminum magnesium silicate glass system. It is characterized by high insulation resistance under high-dose thermal neutron and Y-ray mixed irradiation, and the electrical properties are superior to other materials under the same conditions. Mainly used in the atomic energy industry and defense industry.
Special glass fiber that can effectively protect various radiation. The composition varies depending on the application, and generally contains a large amount of oxides such as lead and stretch. Glass containing lead oxide can absorb X-rays and Y-rays, and glass containing oxidized $ and oxidized stretch can absorb neutrons. The earliest variety was lead-containing glass, which was called “lead glass” or “L” glass fiber. These types of fiberglass are mainly used for protective clothing and special military applications of X-light operators.
[conductive glass fiber]
A conductive material such as colloidal graphite is applied to the surface of the glass fiber to impart a conductive property. The conductive roving is used as a core of a car ignition plug fuse.
Also known as metal coated glass fiber, that is, glass fiber with a metal surface layer. According to the type of metal lock layer, there are lock zinc fiberglass, lock aluminum fiberglass and silver fiberglass. According to its production process, there are vacuum lock film method, vapor deposition method and hot dip method. Locked metal fiberglass has good electromagnetic wave reflection properties and is therefore used militaryly as a scrambler against radar. In addition, the silver-locked glass fiber can be welded and can be used as a wire. The aluminum-locked glass fiber can reflect a large amount of heat energy and can be used as a high-temperature protective clothing.
[Hollow Glass Fiber]
A tubular fiber drawn by a lead raft having a special structure. The hollow ratio is 90% -100%, the hollowness is 10% -65%, the fiber diameter is 10 -70 μm, and the yarn strength is close to that of alkali-free glass fiber. Hollow glass fiber is characterized by light weight, high rigidity and good dielectric properties. It is mainly used to reinforce plastics for aerospace industry and deep water containers.
[Shaped glass fiber]
Using a vortex with a special structure lead-drain nozzle and a special forming process, the drawn single fiber cross-section is non-circular glass fiber. Used in papermaking, it has the characteristics of high strength, thickness and other characteristics. It is used as a reinforcing material and has the characteristics of high rigidity, large contact surface and material saving.
[flat glass fiber]
It is a shaped glass fiber with a flat fiber shape with a flat cross section or a dumbbell shape at both ends of the cross section.
A product made by decomposing, twisting or plying a glass fiber strand for woven glass cloth. There are two types of single yarn and plied yarn.
[single yarn] or first yarn. A glass fiber yarn formed by one or more glass fiber strands after one twisting and twisting.
[Ply yarn] or crepe. By two or more
A glass fiber yarn made of a second twisted ply of a glass fiber single yarn.
A glass fiber yarn made by twisting two or more glass fiber plied yarns (or strands and single yarns) by one or more ply twisting. The glass fiber itself has the characteristics of high strength, small elongation, high temperature resistance, chemical resistance and the like, and the surface treatment can increase the wear resistance and folding resistance. It is made of high temperature resistant resin (such as polytetraethylene ethylene) to make glass fiber sewing thread, which can be used in high temperature or erosive medium. It can be treated by some coupling agents and intermediate binders to improve the adhesion between glass fiber and rubber. It can be made into glass fiber cord for making tires, V-belts, winding or braided hoses.
[glass fiber rope]
A yarn structural article made from continuous glass fiber yarn or fixed length glass fiber yarn by twisting, plying, or weaving. It is characterized by high strength, small elongation, non-conductivity, non-magnetic, and good heat resistance. Used as a binding material in the motor. Covered with plastic or rubber, it can be made into fiberglass load-bearing cable for hanging motor wire and telecommunications.
Two or more glass fiber yarns that are directly and stranded without twisting. Single yarns, plied yarns or cables can be made into multiple strands.
Glass fiber yarns are obtained by deformation processing, including bulked yarn, l yarn, fancy yarn, etc.
A continuous glass fiber yarn obtained by combining a plurality of ultrafine glass fibers having a monofilament diameter of about 3.8 μm and a plurality of strands. The woven fabric or blended fabric woven therefrom has the advantages of high strength, light weight, soft hand feeling, folding resistance, and no burning. Mainly used as a cosmic suit, fire protective overalls, pressurized work clothes, tarpaulins, architectural membranes, decorative fabrics, etc.
Raw yarn for the production of copper-clad fiberglass base fabric for printed circuit boards. It is a textile type raw yarn produced by a wire drawing workshop and coated with a starch-type sizing agent. After being stored and conditioned for a period of time, the large-sized twisting machine is used for decoupling and twisting. Varieties include G75, E225, D450, D900, etc.
Or mixed yarn. A yarn obtained by mixing one or more fibers different in nature from glass fibers and glass fibers. Weaving, weaving, etc. are used as reinforcing materials, thermal insulation materials, etc.
The treated glass fiber yarn is coated with an organic polymer material or other material.
Sorghum, strong and smooth yarns made from continuous glass fiber yarns are usually immersed or lubricated. Used for sewing, for sewing filter materials, insulation materials, protective curtains, etc. The glass fiber sewing thread has excellent tensile strength, knot strength, high temperature resistance and flexibility, and is not suitable for small diameter sewing applications.
[rubber cord / cord]
The continuous glass fiber yarn is impregnated and multi-strand yarn/rope formed by multiple twisting, which is generally used to reinforce rubber products.
A woven fabric of a reinforcing material for a composite material having a different color or composition than the reinforcing yarn. Used to identify the variety, thickness, and distribution of the reinforcement.