The world’s first e-glass fiber glass “composite” passenger lift was born

The world’s first e-glass fiber cloth “composite” passenger elevator, the elevator weight loss of 90% than traditional passenger elevator.

On January 10th, the opening ceremony of the world’s first e-glass fiber cloth composite passenger elevator was held at the hotel ,Singapore Lift Company(SLC). The elevator, known as “8”, has successfully built by a Singapore-based joint venture between the Far East agency, Woh Hup and the holding company Pronus (HK). Singapore Lift Company (SLC) .its weight is about 90% lighter than the traditional steel elevator, but carrying capacity is about doubled.The elevator is made of e-glass fiber cloth, carbon fiber and aluminum alloy honeycomb panel made of light weight, high strength, strong corrosion resistance, so as long as the appropriate maintenance, life can be up to sixty or seventy years.

SLC Managing Director Alister JA Bennett said,The use of e-glass fiber composite materials is not new, like the Boeing 787 Dreamliner and some BMW series of cars, all in the production process using such materials, but the use of e-glass fiber composite materials manufacturing elevator is a pioneering work.

“The advantages of e-glass fiber composite materials, including lightweight high strength, relative to steel, e-glass fiber composite materials is more corrosion-resistant, so as long as appropriate maintenance, e-glass fiber composite material’s life can be as long as sixty or seventy years.”

The weight of the e-glass fiber composite elevator “8” is about 150 kg, Compare with a traditional elevator the ratio is about 1500 kg, equivalent to only 10% weight of e-glass fiber composite elevator. General elevator can only carry about six people, but “8” ‘s carrying capacity can be 11 people, its carrying capacity can up to 825 kg.

Alister JA Bennett said,The traditional elevator T-type rails need to set a support point every 1.5-2 meters, otherwise the rail will bend, so the elevator shaft need a concrete wall or steel frame, so that the elevator rail bracket has a fixed place.

After we redesigned, ‘8’ do not need to use this complex elevator shaft and support frame, and lighter, so we do not have to install the balance hammer. In this way, the space saved allows us to expand the area of the elevator’s car. ”

In addition, the “8” elevator car will have a turning diameter of at least 1.4 meters, leaving enough turn space for the wheelchair. “8” is currently aimed at low-rise buildings, but the future can be extended to 20-storey buildings.

Alister JA Bennett also mentioned that the traditional elevator takes 5-7 days to complete a layer of installation, but the “8” installation process will be shortened to install at least one floor every day elevator, during which no need to use heavy equipment or welding.This will improve staff productivity and help reduce overall building spending.”

It is expected to begin selling in the third quarter of this year

“8” elevator design concept has been approved by the European elevator and escalator safety certification body Liftinstituut. Alister JA Bennett revealed that they had begun negotiations with the Construction Bureau for “8” certification, followed by an authorized elevator inspector to conduct a relevant review. “We plan to complete the certification in March and start selling the lift in the third quarter of this year.”

Alister JA Bennett said that they intend to produce “8” elevator cars in Singapore and hope to work with local universities to further improve the design and engineering of elevator components and promote the development of the overall composite industry.
A spokesman for the Far Eastern Agency and the Hopewell Construction Company said that “8” has the potential to meet the challenges of high cost and limited manpower faced by the local construction and construction industries. They will also assess the feasibility of adopting “8” in development projects in the future.

More products information, please contact us , we have a specialized technical engineers service for you, at the same time we can offer you free samples.

Analysis on the Problem of the Relaxation of the Warp in the edge of Glass Fiber cloth

With the continue development on the popularize and promote of the smart phone and tablet PC fiber cloth, as one of the main upstream raw materials in PCB field , is also increasingly development to the thin, ultra-thin type, And the requirements on the quality of the fiberglass cloth are getting higher and higher,In the air-jet loom weaving process of the fiberglass cloth , the relaxation of the warp yarns on both sides((Hereinafter referred to as loose edge) is a long-standing and troublesome problem in production. This article will address this issue on Analysis of Relevant Causes and Countermeasures.

Loose Edge Phenomenon
The loose edge phenomenon of glass fiber cloth refers to the fiberglass cloth weaving process, on the front of the machine, there has 5 or 8 counts warp yarn of the cloth edge is loose, the length direction is relaxation, the warp yarn is relaxation on the edge of the machine ,the most serious is the side of cloth ,So the yarn tension on both sides of the weaving yarn becomes smaller and the falling of the menstrual-stopping sheet causes the phenomenon of stopping.Usually, workers will be cut off the warp and butt the yarn in the processing of production,This will not only increase the fabric defects, but also increase the labor intensity .At the same time, due to the tension of the warp yarns becomes small, due to the insufficient tension of the warp yarn ,shrinkage defects can be easily produced in the weaving process.

Analysis for the Causes of Loose
The reasons for the shaft itself
In the whole pulp and by the process,The warp tension at the edge of the weave is less than the tension in the middle warp,Leading to loosening of the weaving yarn .
The bad tune in the production process,So that the diameter of the weaving shaft edge is slightly larger,when weaving, the length of the yarn to be sent increased, resulting in the relaxation of the side yarn .
In the first round of the shaft when the shaft bottom of the pad is too thick.
The weaving disc is deformed to change the shape of the side of the weaving shaft,In the weaving to form a lotus leaf edge, the tension of the edge warp while littler while larger, resulting in the relaxation of side yarn .

Glass fiber properties
Fiberglass yarns are made of hundreds of continuous glass monofilaments bundled together with very small twist and trace amounts of sizing agent (see Figure 1),as the characteristics of the glass monofilament itself are extremely smooth surface, and basically no flexibility, no elongation. In addition, Electronic cloth is mainly plain weave structure , Warp density is relatively thin (currently the most densely distributed in the industry by the density of 27. 5 / cm), and the warp, weft, twisted yarn are all glass fiber yarn so that Warp and weft between the friction resistance is small, it is difficult to fully twist does not produce relative slip (see Figure 2)

Weaving reasons
In the weaving process (see Figure 3), after the beating finished, the weaving of the cloth is from the weaving mouth to the time of the movement of the breastplate of the loom, and Weaving is continuing. As the heald frame of the continuous up and down movement, The warp yarns continue to be subjected to the ever-changing warp tension. In the weaving mouth office, Woven weft is constantly under the influence of the warp movement up and down so that the weft yarn further contraction bending, Because the weft yarn is basically inelastic, can not be elongated, and both sides of the twisted yarn can not be fully grasp the weft, The degree of bending of the weft yarn near the cloth edge becomes large, and the weft yarns closing the middle of the cloth face received more and more resistant from warp and the degree of the ability to continue to bend becomes smaller and smaller. Meanwhile, As the weft of the cloth edge of the degree of warp is greater than the middle of the weft, the edge of the weft on the warp yarn force is less than the middle of the weft on the force of warp so that the warp yarns on both side edges of the electronic cloth are less curved in the cloth surface than the intermediate warp yarns, and the edge of the heald frame at the back of the continuous “extension”, eventually leading to side yarn relaxation.

Particularly for the glass fiber electronic tissue (2116, 2113, 3313, 1080, etc.) and the ultra-thin fabric (1067, 106, 103, etc.), as the warp and weft yarn is finer, the warp and weft yarns on the fabric point are less curved, friction between each other is also smaller, so that the warp of both side edges is more likely to be relaxed. This is also seen in the air-jet loom on the menopausal halo on both sides of the lower mid-high slightly arc-shaped reasons. The author believes that this is also one of reason that Electronic cloth industry is always the middle of the fabric permeability is greater than both sides.

In addition, the wear of the rubber roller (or piera) at the breast beam of the loom is also one of the causes of loosening of the side yarn during the weaving process.

Strengthen the preparation process of production management, to ensure the quality of weaving axis
Using a twisted edge way of which has greater grip force on the weft,At present main twist ways in the fiberglass cloth industry are the leno twist and planetary twist,Such as the Tsudakoma loom is used in three yarn leno twist way, the Toyota loom using the planet twist way, In contrast, to the weft grip ,the three yarn leno twist is stronger than the planetary twist, and seen from the actual data of the factory, the edge of the loose side of the yarn may appear Sex smaller.

Change the edge of the law, increase the density of edge warp cloth , such as change (2.2.1) wear method (4.2.1) , as shown in Figure 4, However, this method should be based on different types of cloth, different strains of the test.To prevent the Alice edge caused by the excessive tension ,Due to the cloth with too thick or too tight side when cloth walking in the later procedure.

According to the thickness of different types of cloth, warp and weft yarn thickness and density, to adjust the twist yarn thickness, twist and twist tension,To increase the grip force on the weft. Also be careful not to make cloth edge too thick

Increase the number of waste side of the warp yarn and tension, in order to increase the waste side of the warp yarn on the grip force.

Adjust the time of the twist edge, in the case without affecting the weaving ,So that it can weft the weft earlier before weft insertion (i.e., before weft cutting).

Adjust action time of the the clamping mechanism and the electric shear,So that the position of the presser as close to the reed, adjust the action time of electric shear,So that the weft yarn is pressed by the blank holder before cutting the weft yarn,So as to reduce the degree of bending of the weft yarns side before being cut.

In the pre-preparation process to further increase the weaving side tension of the warp,we take a different approach for different tensioner , but try not to increase the mechanical friction of the yarn.

In the front preparation, the side warp yarns will use finer yarns to reduce the amount of side yarns to be weaved and to reduce the side yarn slack.

From the factory’s actual situation, through the integrated use of the above methods, the relaxation problems of glass fiber edge warp can be better improved,But for some special cloth,Such as the weft yarn is much finer than the warp yarn,Or 106 series even more thinner cloth,There will be individual loom relaxation or the edge relaxation phenomenon of the warp, which is our direction for the fiberglass cloth counterparts need to work together .

Electronic weaving technology and post – processing

High-performance electronic fabrics need high-quality electronic yarn. Some important characteristics of electronic cloth is almost entirely dependent on warp and weft yarn, and the quality of warp and weft yarn is closely related to the twisting process.

The warp and weft yarn twisting process is completed in the high-speed first twist machine. In the process of drawing a single pool of raw silk for the warp and weft yarn, has been in line with the weaving of electronic cloth requirements, no further shares. The reason why through the twisting process, but to the original fiber in the twister on the hot air through the further drying, a small amount of twisting after winding into a suitable for warping, weaving production needs of the bottle-shaped tube. Twisting speed has been reduced from the original 40 twist / m, to the current 28 twist / m, is also to 20 twist / m development, Yarn volume also increased from the original 2Kg to the current 4-8Kg. This series of process improvement of electronic yarn is to ensure the further improvement of the quality of electronic cloth. The electronic cloth production process is as follows.
Raw fiberglass》Initial twist》Batch warping》shaft sizing》drawing》Air – jet looms》Inspection cloth 》Continuous heat treatment 》Batch heat treatment 》Surface chemical treatment》test.

Electronic fabric structure
The arrangement of warp and weft yarns in the fabric and the state of joining with each other are called fabric structures. Fabric structure depends on the warp and weft yarn diameter, number of shares, twist, linear density, warp and weft density, fabric and fabric parameters and many other factors. Variations in these factors, as well as different combinations of each other, can constitute a number of structural properties of different glass fiber fabric to meet the needs of different uses.

The filament diameter of the electronic warp and weft yarns is 9 m or less, and there are four grades of 5 m, 6 m, 7 m and 9 m. In general, finer monofilaments can be made into finer yarns ,while finer yarns can be woven into thinner fabrics. And the same thickness of the cloth, such as the use of smaller diameter single warp and weft, the cloth’s softness, mechanical properties and durability are better. In addition, the original drawing coated fiberglass sizing, not only played at the time of drawing lubrication and cluster effect, but also improve the flexibility of the strand to a certain extent, abrasion resistance and resistance to bending performance. In particular, the current drawing infiltration agent, most manufacturers have adopted a modified starch infiltration agent, so that the original fiberglass textile performance has been significantly improved.

The fabric weave represents the weaving rule of warp and weft yarn. Industrial electronic fabrics are mainly plain, twill, satin and leno four organizations. Plain weave is the simplest and most commonly used fabric. Compared with twill and satin weave, weft and weft yarns in plain weave have the highest number of weave points and buckling numbers, and are close to each other. The fabric is relatively tight and flat and suitable for most electrical insulation and reinforcement materials. In general, plain weave are used in CCL with a variety of electronic fabrics .

Technical Characteristics of Air – jet Looms
At present, the electronic cloth air-jet loom production. The current air-jet loom speed has reached 600 ~ 750r / min, which can produce a uniform tension, smooth cloth, no hair loss and high-quality electronic embryo and maintain a high weaving efficiency. The roll length of the electronic fabric is usually 2000 m / roll, up to 4000 m / roll. Specific technical characteristics are as follows.

Using electronic let-off, electronic coiling, to achieve positive sent by the coiling and stabilize warp tension

Using photoelectric double-weft can detect the lack of weft, weft release, but also  beyond the detector weft So that reduce the zonal defects (for very little weft broken glass fiber fabric only need a weft)

Using electronic control weft storage device to stabilize the weft tension. The weft yarn discharged from the main nozzle is wefted by the auxiliary jetting force, and then is finally attracted by the terminal drawing nozzleso that reduce the weft and the weft untwisting defect

Using positioning parking, locating the effective control of driving and braking angle, and a shuttle, reversing and other functions, which effectively prevent the switch car’s dense road defects.

Using automatic pair shedding device and device for preventing the driving mark, So that the fabric weft defects greatly reduced

Electronic cloth post – processing
In order to further improve the physical and chemical properties of electronic cloth and its products processing performance, which need to post-processing electronic fabric. Including the heating, removal of raw silk in the drawing process of drawing the coating of infiltrating agent, as well as the yarn in the sizing process of coating the slurry, a surface layer of the fabric impregnated with coupling agent. This process is called thermal-chemical processing (“post-processing”). Electronic post-processing process, including continuous heat treatment, batch heat treatment and surface chemical treatment of three parts.

Continuous heat treatment
Continuous heat treatment, also known as pre-desizing. The continuous heat treatment of the gray fabric was performed on a continuous heat treatment unit (hereinafter referred to as KH unit). The core of the unit is a high temperature desizing furnace. To keep the continuous operation, the unit consists of several units, mainly for the cloth feeder, feeding and sending device, winding device. For the cloth machine with a roll for the cloth with a hot device, In order to change the volume in the continuous operation of cloth, feeding the fabric section and the feed section is configured with cloth storage device, The fabric is fixed on the cloth feeding machine, the cloth for feeding cloth is fed into the storage rack by the feeding roller, and the cloth drawn from the storage section of the feeding section enters the high-temperature desizing furnace through guide rollers. The fabric of organic matter in the high-temperature furnace decomposite and carbonize, volatiles discharged with the flue gas. As the glass cloth in the high-temperature furnace through the shorter time, there are still some incomplete carbonization of organic matter is still left on the cloth. Therefore, the high-temperature furnace pre-desizing cloth (also known as “KH cloth”) was dark brown. KH cloth guide roller into the feed section of storage rack, and then sent by the feeding roller into the winding device, winding to the heat treatment with the hole on the steel pipe.

After the warp sizing of the fabric woven into the general organic content of 1.7% to 5.0%, the variety of cloth is very different due to the size and sizing rate. The purpose of continuous thermal desliming is to remove most of the organic matter on the cloth, so that the amount of residual organic matter (referred to as the amount of residual fat) reduced to 0.5%. Continuous heat treatment process is the key to master the treatment of temperature and time, for KH unit, the key is to correctly set and control the temperature and desizing furnace temperature and operating speed. As the heating method, the heating principle and the furnace structure is different, different KH unit set temperature requirements will be different. The same unit with different operating speeds, the furnace temperature setting also need to change. When the speed increases, in order to ensure the desizing effect, the need to properly improve the furnace temperature, but the furnace temperature should not be too high, because the higher the temperature the greater the loss of electronic cloth. In general, the processing temperature of electronic cloth is not higher than 450 ℃ is appropriate, furnace temperature and operating speed setting and adjustment of the target is to achieve the technical requirements of organic residues indicators, while minimizing the loss of strength. The exact amount of residual fat should be sampled and sent to the laboratory for testing. Experienced by KH cloth color of the observation can also be roughly determine the treatment effect.

Continuous heat treatment furnace heating temperature is high, usually used for electric energy, this furnace commonly known as electric furnace. As long as the appropriate resistance elements connect into the power grid, you can convert electrical energy into heat, thereby performing heating. And the electric furnace structure is simple, easy maintenance, temperature control is simple and reliable, and its thermal efficiency is also high, up to 50% to 80% of the electrical parameters of the circuit can be adjusted to control the temperature of the power, therefore, the electric heating is the ideal glass fiber fabric for continuous heat treatment furnace heat source for most of the glass fiber plant used.

Gas, liquefied petroleum gas can also be used as heat treatment furnace heat source, mainly because of its high calorific value, more economical, but their combustion temperature is not easy to control, complex institutions, generally continuous heat treatment furnace does not use gas

Batch heat treatment
Batch heat treatment, also known as thermal desizing, referred to as “BH”, the task is to completely remove the remaining organic material on the cloth, , Electronic cloth residual fat content reached 0.05%, while minimizing the loss of fabric strength.

Batch heat treatment process is that after Pre-desizing the fabric, the wound in the stainless steel tube on the hole, on a dedicated steel shelf and put Into the BH furnace for stew burning.

The residual organic matter on the fabric is decomposed and carbonized in the furnace, and its volatiles are discharged out of the furnace through the recycle gas. The processing time of the fabric in the furnace can be determined according to the variety and specification of the gray fabric and the amount of the organic matter residue after the treatment in the KH furnace. After the set time, BH furnace will automatically stop running. Meantime, you can open the door heat, until the cloth surface temperature dropped to the handle is not hot, you can remove from the  shelf, transported to the surface of the chemical treatment furnace to be processed. As the residual organic matter on the fabric was completely decomposed and carbonized in the BH furnace, the surface of the fabric treated by the BH furnace showed a pure white color. The technological requirement of the process is that the temperature curve is set correctly and the treatment time is strictly controlled so that the residual amount of the organic matter in the gray cloth is controlled to be 0.05% or less, and the fabric is ensured to achieve the specified tensile strength.

Batch heat treatment process is the key to master the processing temperature and processing time. For the high-temperature oven, the key is to set the furnace temperature, heating time and holding time, these parameters should be based on the electronic cloth of different specifications, fabric content and KH process conditions, and the structure and heat oven work principle. rule of thumb often set the initial parameters, and then determine the optimum parameters by trial and adjustment. Furnace temperature generally not more than 400 ℃ is appropriate, processing time required 40 ~ 60h. The temperature is too high, the loss of electronic fabric strength is too large, the processing time is too short, the cloth roll may also be internal. Practice that setting the furnace temperature is slightly lower and longer processing time, to ensure the quality of electronic cloth is more favorable, you can achieve low residual fat and retain the effect of high strength.

Batch heat treatment furnace is a closed high-temperature baking furnace, You can not only use liquefied petroleum gas or gas, natural gas as a heat source, also fuel as a heat source. Different heat sources need to be equipped with different combustion devices. However, for the batch heat treatment furnace, because the processing time is longer, heat treatment furnace is fully enclosed, the use of hot air circulation heating type. If the use of electric, power consumption is very powerful and high cost. Wrapped in the steel pipe with a hole on the KH cloth placed in a dedicated steel rack to put BH furnace, filled with a furnace closed the door, the ignition temperature to reach the set temperature and then heat a few 10h.

KH cloth on the residual organic matter in the BH furnace is oxidized, its products free out, in the hot air under the guidance of the discharge from the furnace. When the set time automatically shut down, this time can open the door, to be slightly cool after the take-out cloth frame to complete the batch of thermal desizing process.

Surface chemical treatment
Electronic fabric surface chemical treatment is in the surface treatment unit (FN unit) on the completion of the surface chemical treatment of electronic fabric referred to as FN cloth. Surface chemical treatment unit is composed of multi-unit device composed of continuous processing unit, which is the core part of the processing of liquid immersion device and drying device.

The processing solution impregnation means is movable up and down while the immersion roller is fixed, When the speed of cloth is determined, by adjusting the dipping tank of the upper and lower position and height of the tank to adjust the liquid immersion time. The electronic cloth impregnated with the treating liquid leaves the treating liquid and is then squeezed by a pair of rubber pressing rollers to increase the permeation of the treating liquid, to drive out the bubbles in the cloth, and to remove the excessive treating liquid. Squeeze roller material hardness, higher pressure are also important parameter to determine the content of the treatment agent and impregnation quality electronic cloth. For the General electronic cloth, the content of the treatment liquid on the squeeze roller back cloth is controlled within the range of 20% to 30%.

About 99% of the treatment solution is water, so the squeeze roller leads to the electronic cloth also contains large amounts of water, need to be removed by oven. Oven heating principle and the furnace structure is different from the drying effect is also different, generally the temperature does not exceed 170 ℃ to the principle of the baking cloth after the moisture content of not more than 0.1% for the target adjustment and control. Because the temperature is too high affecting the effect of coupling agent, moisture content is too high will affect the application performance of cloth. Surface chemical treatment of the key quality indicators are organic content. As a result of batch heat treatment of BH cloth still has 0.05% of the following organic residue. Therefore, the FN cloth measured by the general test contains the content of the post-treatment agent and the residual amount of the original organic substance. The FN cloth that has undergone surface chemical treatment should be within the range of 0.05% to 0.25% according to the IPC standard.

Now the world’s electronics industry is developing rapidly, the electronic fabric has also been put forward higher requirements. To meet the new requirements of the electronics industry, electronics manufacturers not only research and development of new coupling agents and additives, and other chemical treatment of new technologies, but also research and development of a number of chemical processing combined with the new treatment methods, Such as high-pressure water jet method. Japan successfully developed this new electronic cloth known as the SP cloth. SP cloth processing principle is the use of high-pressure water jet, so that warp and weft exposed to the cloth part of the fiber evenly spread into flat, also known as the “open fiber” cloth. There is also a physical processing method, the purpose of the processing and the same as the open cloth, the difference is that it uses mechanical scrape method to achieve the effect of open fiber. It is said that this method can achieve the effect similar to the SP cloth, does not require high-pressure water injection system and extrusion drying device can be combined in the surface chemical treatment unit can also be combined in the inspection machine, the processing cost is lower. Further, there is a thermal burn-over method in which the glass cloth is subjected to an over-burning treatment at a temperature higher than the ordinary process or for a longer time in the thermal cleaning process to appropriately reduce the tensile strength of cloth, the cloth brittle, so as to improve the drilling of the cloth processing and improve the quality of the hole wall. After the burning of the glass cloth called cloth or brittle cloth.

Electronic grade fiberglass is an indispensable new engineering material and high-quality structural material for the further development of the electronics industry and scientific and technological progress, so the market prospects will be getting better and better. As an electronic grade fiberglass manufacturer not only to improve the number of electronic-grade glass fiber products, but also to continuously improve product quality, increase product specifications, expand product variety, in order to meet the market’s operational development.