New technology to make aeronautical composites without fear of lightning

Cost-effective fiberglass mesh fabric

Following the study of Nanocomposites with the National Center for Nano-Science, the Airbus (Beijing) Engineering Technology Center has joined hands with AVIC industry to explore the use of new technologies to improve the conductive properties of composites.

This new technology is known as “interlayer functionality”. Recently, the Airbus (Beijing) Engineering Technology Center and AVIC Industry in AVIC Composites Co., Ltd. signed a cooperation agreement to improve the toughness, damage resistance and electrical conductivity of composites by developing this technology, thereby reducing the damage caused by lightning strikes to aircraft. In fact, lightning resistance is also the main application research direction of nanocomposites at the present stage.

Today, the application of composites on civil aircraft has become one of the criteria for measuring the advanced nature of aircraft. Compared with metal materials, carbon fiber composites have many advantages, such as designability, higher specific strength and specific stiffness. Since the 60 ‘s, the use of composite materials on airliners has been increasing after decades of development, and gradually replace aluminum alloy and become the body’s main structural materials.

Today, the application proportion of several new models of composite materials that civil aircraft manufacturers have introduced has reached more than 50% of. Among them, the proportion of composite materials used has reached 53% in the body structure of Airbus A350XWB aircraft. It is currently the highest proportion of the use of large civilian aircraft.

But composites also have disadvantages. Cheng Long, general manager of Airbus (Beijing) Engineering Technology Center, said that composites have poor conductivity and damage resistance. So there are great safety risks when they encounter lightning strikes. To this end, manufacturers will add a layer of metal protection mesh to the surface of the fuselage to help conduct electricity in the production, which invisibly increase the weight of the fuselage and affect the economy of the aircraft. “We want to develop appropriate solutions on the basis of existing regulations.”

In view of this problem, the team of Professor Yi Xiaosu from AVIC Composites Co., Ltd. has innovatively put forward the concept of Interlayer Function. This technology can replace the anti-lightning metal protection mesh on the traditional aircraft, which makes the composites have good electrical conductivity and damage resistance, so as to successfully avoid lightning and anti-ice.

In the early stage of scientific research, the Airbus (Beijing) Engineering Technology Center will carry out engineering testing of Interlayer Functional technology. Cheng Long said the Airbus (Beijing) Engineering Technology Center hopes to begin testing the materials next year. The test will take place in normal flight and simulated state. “But this technology will take a long time from laboratory research and development to practical applications. It will not only to meet technical standards and evidentiary requirements, but also to minimize production costs, so as to achieve large-scale industrial production.”

Cheng Long also said that the project on “Wing Morphological transformation” is currently implemented in Airbus (Beijing) Engineering Technology Center except projects about nanomaterials, 3D printing and conductive composites. This means that the aircraft does not need to use an actuator to change the shape of the wing, which can be achieved by electricity. The benefit of this solution is very great. “Changes in the moving way can save a lot of time, especially in the maintenance of the aircraft. In addition, because of the reduction of the operating system, the aircraft can further reduce weight, thus improving operational efficiency. “

Cost-effective fiberglass mesh fabric

Cost-effective fiberglass mesh fabric

For Rock woll composite board with mesh fabric, the installation time of rock wool board is shortened by 70% during installation and use, which effectively improves the progress of the project.

The main material of rock wool composite board is basalt cotton board, basalt, iron ore, bauxite and other materials. After high temperature melting processing, artificial inorganic fiber is added with appropriate amount of binder, which has light weight and small thermal conductivity. Endothermic, non-combustible features.

The mesh fabric increases cement mortar surface of the rock wool board, which reinforces the hardness of the rock wool board, directly eliminating the process of plastering the upper wall during construction, and shortening the construction period of the rock wool board by 70%. The rock wool board is made of basalt and other natural ores, and the rock wool board is melted into fiber by high temperature, added with appropriate amount of binder, and solidified and processed. Rockwool board products are suitable for thermal insulation and sound insulation of industrial equipment, construction and ships.

The features of rock wool
1. Appearance: The surface is flat, and there must be no scratches or stains that impede practical use.
2. Combustion performance: Class A (non-inflammable).
3. Temperature resistance: 800℃.
4. Hygroscopicity: >200%
5. Capacity: ≤ 150
6. Oxygen index: 0
7. Thermal conductivity: 0.04~0.055 (w/mk)

Aluminum foil mesh cloth

Material: Fiberglass 1000(mm)

Application: Thermal insulation, compressive strength

The composite aluminum foil has smooth and flat surface, high light reflectivity, large tensile strength in the longitudinal direction, airtightness, imperviousness, good sealing performance and strong weather resistance. Indoor: Mainly used for insulation materials of air-conditioning and HVAC equipment pipes and rock wool and ultra-fine glass wool protective layer on building noise-reducing and sound-insulating materials, which can be used for flame-retardant, anti-corrosion, heat-insulating and sound-absorbing; Moisture, anti-fog, fireproof, anti-corrosion packaging materials. Outdoor: It is mainly used for the protective dressing of chemical pipelines such as oil pipelines and steam pipelines, and can also achieve good effects of anti-corrosion, flame retardant and heat insulation.

Waterproof fiberglass mesh cloth

It can effectively resist the erosion of alkaline substances in cement, thereby greatly improving the impact resistance, tensile strength, bending resistance, crack resistance and impermeability of cement mortar. Its elastic modulus is 80 MPa and the elongation at break is less than 2.4%. It has the same expansion and contraction coefficient as cement polymer mortar, good adhesion and strong gripping force, which satisfies the need of 90 degree deformation of doors, windows and corners in the construction of the site, and avoids the disadvantages of using metal mesh to create cavities.

Glass Fiber Market Outlook Report

Glass Fiber Market Outlook Report

According to the Asian JEC Gazette, we have learned about the prospects of the glass fiber tube market. China’s composites market is already one of the world’s largest composite materials markets, reaching 1.5 million tons in 2007, ranking third in the world, after the United States (2.8 million tons) and Europe (1.9 million tons).

In molding technology, The obvious difference between China’s composites industry and North America and Europe is that China still focuses on hand made craftsmanship, accounting for 35%-45%, while North America and Europe are 15%-20%. The injection molding process of China is still underdeveloped, accounting for only 15%-20%, while North America and Europe are 45%-50%.

In the next five years, China’s composite materials market will grow at a high rate, with an annual growth rate of about 8%-9%. The per capita consumption of composite materials in China will increase from 1.2kg in 2007 to around 2kg in 2013 (European per capita consumption in 2013 is 3kg-4kg). Between 2007 and 2013, China’s composite materials are expected to grow in the construction and capital construction sectors (accounting for 39% of future growth), and the automotive sector is also strong (16%), followed by pipeline manufacturing (13%).

China’s demand for fiberglass and resin can be fully met by local production. In glass fiber, there are domestic manufacturers, such as Jushi, Chongqing International and Taishan Fiberglass (accounting for 60% of the country’s existing production capacity), as well as international manufacturers, namely PPG and OCV (accounting for 11% of the Chinese market).

The Chinese market will still be driven by the shift in manufacturing. For example, in China’s fiberglass market, international manufacturers are planning to develop their capacity, from 300,000 tons in 2008 to 600,000 tons in 2012. However, this growth is limited compared to the expansion plans of domestic manufacturers (from 1.6 million tons to 2.8 million tons). 2012 World Fiberglass Top 5 Production Capacity in China (10,000 tons): Jushi: 150; Chongqing International: 70; Taishan Fiberglass: 60; PPG: 37; OCV: 20.

Chinese fiberglass manufacturers will also be adversely affected by the global economic downturn. Due to the global decline in demand for fiberglass, they may temporarily freeze their investment in new capacity. However, compared to Western manufacturers, this does not substantially affect their cost competitiveness (high yield, economies of scale, lower average labor costs, etc.). Short-term demand for glass fiber is sluggish, and inventory pressure is high. Before the financial crisis, the global supply and demand of glass fiber was basically balanced. In 2001-07, the global compound growth rate was above 8%. The growth rate of China’s demand was significantly higher than the global level. In 2001-2007, China’s compound growth rate was above 23%, it is expected to maintain a growth rate of 15% in 2008-2012. Affected by the financial crisis, short-term demand has declined significantly, and only in the field of wind power has increased, and domestic demand is difficult to make up for the gap. The characteristics of glass fiber products that can not be stopped and limited production have increased short-term inventory pressure.

The industry is at the worst moment, waiting for the economic recovery. The current volume and price of the glass fiber industry are falling, the inventory is high, and the industry is at the worst moment, which is conducive to eliminating backward production capacity. However, the glass fiber industry is highly concentrated. The world’s six major suppliers (Jushi, OCV, Chongqing, PPG, Taishan, Johns Manivel) account for more than 70% of the world’s production capacity, and the application of glass fiber is extensive, and new application areas are also being developed, the economic recovery will usher in a huge rebound in industry earnings.

Glass fiber noun analysis

Glass fiber noun analysis

Glass fiber is an essential material for the composition of glass fiber tubes. This section introduces the related terms of glass fiber.

【Artificial Glass Fiber】

It refers to artificially melting the melt by external force, stretching and cooling, and hardening into a fibrous unit of amorphous structure. It is usually a general term for fiberglass and mineral wool. Also included in the broadest sense are man-made elemental glass fibers, plexiglass fibers, and other inorganic glass fibers.

【glass fiber】

An artificial inorganic fiber. Use natural ore such as quartz sand, limestone, self-cloud stone, kaolin, pyrophyllite, etc., together with other chemical raw materials such as soda ash, acidity (also can be replaced by alkali, containing natural ore), etc., into glass, In the molten state, it is drawn, blown or twisted into a very fine fibrous material by external force. According to its composition and properties, it can be divided into non-alkali glass fiber (including non-stretched raw glass fiber), medium alkali glass fiber, high alkali glass fiber and special glass fiber; according to its form, it can be divided into continuous glass fiber and fixed length fiberglass. And glass wool; according to the production method, there are basically two types: one is to make the molten glass directly into the fiber, and the other is to make the molten glass into a ball, a rod or a block, and then use it as a raw material, and use various heating methods. After remelting, it is made into fibers. The basic properties of glass fiber are: non-combustible, corrosion-resistant, high-temperature resistant, low hygroscopicity, small elongation, high tensile strength, good chemical stability, good electrical insulation and thermal insulation properties, and poor flexibility and folding resistance. Due to the different glass composition, the performance of one aspect can be more prominent. It can be made into various forms of products, such as yarn, wool yarn, cloth, tape, circular cloth, mat, felt, board, shell and so on. It can be used as electrical insulation materials, filter materials, heat insulation, sound absorption, shock absorption materials, anti-corrosion materials, moisture-proof materials, etc.; and it can be used as a reinforcing material to make composite materials with various organic or inorganic materials, such as glass fiber reinforced thermosetting plastics. (Glass steel), glass fiber reinforced thermoplastics and reinforced rubber products, glass fiber reinforced inorganic cementitious materials such as reinforced plaster and cement; organic coating treatment can also be used to improve its flexibility, making various soft products such as packaging cloth, Screens, curtains, wall coverings, tarpaulins, architectural membranes and special protective equipment. These products are widely used in industrial, agricultural, construction and civil applications. And because it has some excellent properties that other materials do not have, it has become an indispensable material in the military industry.

[Continuous glass fiber]

A large category classified by fiberglass morphology. When the molten high-temperature viscous glass liquid flows out of the pupil, it is drawn into an infinitely long glass fiber by an external force. Continuous glass fibers have different thicknesses and their uses are different. Generally, fibers of 3 -9 μm in diameter are woven into various textile products, such as cloth, belts, sleeves, etc., which are often referred to as textile-type glass fibers because they are often subjected to textile processing; they are made of fibers having a diameter of 10 -24 μm. It is a reinforcing material such as roving, roving, chopped strand, chopped strand mat. Therefore, it is also called enhanced glass fiber.

[fixed length fiberglass]

A large category classified by fiberglass morphology. It is a glass fiber with a limited length, also called long cotton. There are many production methods, such as the blowing method and the rolling method. The length of the fixed length fiber is not very uniform. It can be made into a yarn and processed into a fabric, or it can be made into a thin felt or processed into a product, and used as a waterproof material, a filter material, and a heat insulating material.

[E fiberglass]

Also known as alkali-free glass fiber. A continuous glass fiber drawn from an alkali-free glass containing 0% to 2% of an alkali metal oxide. The usual composition range is: SiO2 53% -55%, A12 O3 13% -16%, CaO16% – 22%, MgO 0% -5%, B2 O34% -9%, Na2 O <2%, Fe2 O3 < 0.4%, TiO2 <2.5%, F2 <1%. The melting temperature is about 1560 -1580 ° C, the drawing temperature is about 1200 -1240 ° C, and the wire drawing process performance is good. The fiber has the characteristics of good electrical insulation performance, high mechanical strength, good water resistance, and the like, but the acid resistance is poor. It is suitable for reinforcing materials for electrical insulating materials, plastics and rubber products.

[E-CR fiberglass]

It is a type of fiberglass that does not contain B2 O3 and F2. Since 1970, due to the increasing emphasis on environmental effects, and in order to improve the chemical and mechanical properties of glass, many changes have been made to the composition of E glass: reducing the content of B2 O3 and F2 without even using it, adding TiO2, ZnO, O-CR glass fibers, glazed glass fibers, unbonded glass fibers, and Advantex@ glass fibers have appeared in oxides such as SrO and Li2O. These fibers have good electrical and chemical stability while improving the mechanical properties of the fibers and making them more environmentally friendly.

[C glass fiber]

Also known as chemically resistant glass fiber. It has high chemical stability and better acid resistance and weather resistance than alkali-free glass fiber. The composition range of C glass is: SiO2 64% -66%, A12 O3 4% -5%, CaO13% -14%, MgO3% -4%, B2 O3 4% -6%, Na2 O+K2 O3% -10% , Fe2 O3 <0.5%. Suitable for battery sleeves, acid-resistant filter materials, and surface felts for chemically resistant glass fiber reinforced plastic products.

[Medium Alkali Fiberglass]

A fiber made of a medium alkali glass containing about 12% of an alkali metal oxide is used. The composition range of China’s medium alkali glass is: SiO2 64% – 68%, A12 O3 4% -8%, CaO 9% -12%, MgO 3% -5%, Na2 O+K2 O10% -12%, B2 O3 0% -3%, Fe2 O3 <0.4%. The melting temperature is 1530 -1540 °C and the drawing temperature is 1160 -1200 °C. The fiber has good acid resistance, but the mechanical strength is lower than that of the alkali-free glass fiber, and is suitable for use as an acid filter cloth, a latex cloth substrate, a window material substrate, and the like. It can also be used as a reinforcing material for glass fiber reinforced plastics and rubber products that are not critical to electrical performance and strength. Because its acid resistance is no less than C glass fiber, it is included in the C glass category in China’s product code standard.

[A glass fiber]

SiO2 71% -73%, A12 O3 0.5% -3%,CaO6% -10%,MgO3% -5%,Na2 O+ K2 O14% -17%,Fe2 O3 <0.4%。

A fiber made of a high alkali glass containing 14% or more of an alkali metal oxide. Its composition range is:

SiO2 71% -73%, A12 O3 0.5% -3%, CaO6% -10%, MgO3% -5%, Na2O+K2O14%-17%, Fe2O3 <0.4%. Due to the high alkali content, it is also called high alkali glass fiber.

The fiber is not as water-resistant and mechanically strong as alkali-free and medium-alkali glass fibers, but has good acid resistance. The mat can be used as a battery separator, a substrate for asphalt linoleum, and a heat insulating material. Its continuous fiber woven pipe wraps. The drawing temperature is low, and the flat glass scrap can be used, and the cost is low. In China, this kind of glass fiber is often used in clay vortex drawing, but this drawing process has been eliminated by the government in 1995.

[S glass fiber]

Also known as high-strength glass fiber, it belongs to SiO-AlO-MgO ternary oxide system. The strength of the monofilament is generally more than 30% higher than that of the alkali-free glass fiber. The reinforced plastic is made to have a tensile strength of 30% to 40% and an elastic modulus of 10% to 20%, which is made of an alkali-free fiber. S -2 in the United States is a typical component of S glass and consists of SiO265%, A12 O325%, and MgO10%. Such glass melting temperature and crystallization upper limit temperature are higher than alkali-free, medium-alkali glass, crystallization rate is fast, and fiber forming temperature is high. It is mainly used for glass fiber reinforced plastic products and national defense sciences with high strength requirements.

[R glass fiber]

R glass fiber is the French company’s glass fiber product code, which is a high mechanical strength glass fiber. The strength of monofilament is generally 30% higher than that of alkali-free glass fiber. The reinforced plastic produced can be increased by 30% – 40% and the modulus of elasticity by 10% – 20% compared to the alkali-free fiber. France R glass fiber is SiO2 -A12 O3 -CaO-MgO quaternary oxide system, does not contain oxidation, the typical composition is SiO2 58% -60%, A12 O3 23.5% -25.5%, CaO+MgO14%-17% The composition, in addition to mechanical properties, has good heat resistance and chemical stability compared to alkali-free glass fibers.

[M glass fiber]

Also known as high elastic modulus glass fiber, referred to as high modulus glass fiber. The reinforced plastic made of the same has a modulus of elasticity of more than 30% and a tensile strength of 5% to -30%. Most of these glass components are in the magnesium-aluminum-silicon system glass, and some oxides such as BeO, ZrO2, TiO2, rare earth oxide and the like which increase the modulus of elasticity and improve the physicochemical properties are added. Compared with the alkali-free, medium-alkali glass melting temperature and the crystallization upper limit temperature, the crystallization rate is fast, so the fiber forming temperature is high. It is mainly used in glass fiber reinforced plastic products and defense sciences that require high modulus of elasticity.

[AR fiberglass]

Also known as alkali-resistant glass fiber. It is an alkali-resistant solution, especially a glass fiber that is resistant to attack by a free solution of free Ca(OH)2. Mainly used as a reinforcing material for cement products. The more typical alkali-resistant composition belongs to the sodium silicate glass system with high oxidation content and high oxidation content. Melting and drawing temperatures are high. For example, the British product name “Cem-Fil” is a composition of glass fiber: composed of SiO2 71%, A12 O3 1%, zrO2 16%, Na2 O11%, Li2 Ol%, and the drawing temperature is above 1400 C. These fibers are used to replace asbestos, steel bars, slabs, corrugated tiles and other reinforced cement products. Light weight, high strength and good impact resistance.

[D glass fiber]

Also known as low dielectric glass fiber. The glass fiber drawn from low dielectric glass has a lower dielectric constant and lower dielectric loss than E glass fiber, and is composed of high tensile high silica glass, which is suitable for manufacturing electronic components and radomes.

[High Silica Glass Fiber]

Contains more than 95% SiO2. It is obtained by sintering and extracting the silicate glass fiber by acid extraction. This fiber has low strength, but can withstand 900 C for a long time and 1200 C for short-term. It is an excellent ablation material and heat-insulating material with high temperature resistance.

[quartz fiberglass]

Glass fiber drawn from quartz glass containing more than 99% SiO2. This fiber strength and high temperature resistance are superior to high silica glass fibers.

[basalt fiber]

Glass fiber drawn from natural basalt. It has good heat resistance, acid resistance and alkali resistance, and has higher strength and higher modulus of elasticity than ordinary E glass fiber. It is usually used as a reinforcing material or insulation material with special requirements, and it can also be used as a cement product for some asbestos.

[radiation resistant electrically insulating glass fiber]

A glass fiber that combines both radiation resistance and high insulation properties. It belongs to calcium aluminum magnesium silicate glass system. It is characterized by high insulation resistance under high-dose thermal neutron and Y-ray mixed irradiation, and the electrical properties are superior to other materials under the same conditions. Mainly used in the atomic energy industry and defense industry.

[radiation-proof fiberglass]

Special glass fiber that can effectively protect various radiation. The composition varies depending on the application, and generally contains a large amount of oxides such as lead and stretch. Glass containing lead oxide can absorb X-rays and Y-rays, and glass containing oxidized $ and oxidized stretch can absorb neutrons. The earliest variety was lead-containing glass, which was called “lead glass” or “L” glass fiber. These types of fiberglass are mainly used for protective clothing and special military applications of X-light operators.

[conductive glass fiber]

A conductive material such as colloidal graphite is applied to the surface of the glass fiber to impart a conductive property. The conductive roving is used as a core of a car ignition plug fuse.

【metal fiberglass】

Also known as metal coated glass fiber, that is, glass fiber with a metal surface layer. According to the type of metal lock layer, there are lock zinc fiberglass, lock aluminum fiberglass and silver fiberglass. According to its production process, there are vacuum lock film method, vapor deposition method and hot dip method. Locked metal fiberglass has good electromagnetic wave reflection properties and is therefore used militaryly as a scrambler against radar. In addition, the silver-locked glass fiber can be welded and can be used as a wire. The aluminum-locked glass fiber can reflect a large amount of heat energy and can be used as a high-temperature protective clothing.

[Hollow Glass Fiber]

A tubular fiber drawn by a lead raft having a special structure. The hollow ratio is 90% -100%, the hollowness is 10% -65%, the fiber diameter is 10 -70 μm, and the yarn strength is close to that of alkali-free glass fiber. Hollow glass fiber is characterized by light weight, high rigidity and good dielectric properties. It is mainly used to reinforce plastics for aerospace industry and deep water containers.

[Shaped glass fiber]

Using a vortex with a special structure lead-drain nozzle and a special forming process, the drawn single fiber cross-section is non-circular glass fiber. Used in papermaking, it has the characteristics of high strength, thickness and other characteristics. It is used as a reinforcing material and has the characteristics of high rigidity, large contact surface and material saving.

[flat glass fiber]

It is a shaped glass fiber with a flat fiber shape with a flat cross section or a dumbbell shape at both ends of the cross section.

[Fiberglass yarn]

A product made by decomposing, twisting or plying a glass fiber strand for woven glass cloth. There are two types of single yarn and plied yarn.

[single yarn] or first yarn. A glass fiber yarn formed by one or more glass fiber strands after one twisting and twisting.

[Ply yarn] or crepe. By two or more

A glass fiber yarn made of a second twisted ply of a glass fiber single yarn.

[cable]

A glass fiber yarn made by twisting two or more glass fiber plied yarns (or strands and single yarns) by one or more ply twisting. The glass fiber itself has the characteristics of high strength, small elongation, high temperature resistance, chemical resistance and the like, and the surface treatment can increase the wear resistance and folding resistance. It is made of high temperature resistant resin (such as polytetraethylene ethylene) to make glass fiber sewing thread, which can be used in high temperature or erosive medium. It can be treated by some coupling agents and intermediate binders to improve the adhesion between glass fiber and rubber. It can be made into glass fiber cord for making tires, V-belts, winding or braided hoses.

[glass fiber rope]

A yarn structural article made from continuous glass fiber yarn or fixed length glass fiber yarn by twisting, plying, or weaving. It is characterized by high strength, small elongation, non-conductivity, non-magnetic, and good heat resistance. Used as a binding material in the motor. Covered with plastic or rubber, it can be made into fiberglass load-bearing cable for hanging motor wire and telecommunications.

[multiple winding]

Two or more glass fiber yarns that are directly and stranded without twisting. Single yarns, plied yarns or cables can be made into multiple strands.

[textured yarn]

Glass fiber yarns are obtained by deformation processing, including bulked yarn, l yarn, fancy yarn, etc.

[bulked yarn]

[Circle yarn]

[beta yarn]

A continuous glass fiber yarn obtained by combining a plurality of ultrafine glass fibers having a monofilament diameter of about 3.8 μm and a plurality of strands. The woven fabric or blended fabric woven therefrom has the advantages of high strength, light weight, soft hand feeling, folding resistance, and no burning. Mainly used as a cosmic suit, fire protective overalls, pressurized work clothes, tarpaulins, architectural membranes, decorative fabrics, etc.

[Electronic yarn]

Raw yarn for the production of copper-clad fiberglass base fabric for printed circuit boards. It is a textile type raw yarn produced by a wire drawing workshop and coated with a starch-type sizing agent. After being stored and conditioned for a period of time, the large-sized twisting machine is used for decoupling and twisting. Varieties include G75, E225, D450, D900, etc.

[Kun Spinning]

Or mixed yarn. A yarn obtained by mixing one or more fibers different in nature from glass fibers and glass fibers. Weaving, weaving, etc. are used as reinforcing materials, thermal insulation materials, etc.

[coated yarn]

The treated glass fiber yarn is coated with an organic polymer material or other material.

[sewing thread]

Sorghum, strong and smooth yarns made from continuous glass fiber yarns are usually immersed or lubricated. Used for sewing, for sewing filter materials, insulation materials, protective curtains, etc. The glass fiber sewing thread has excellent tensile strength, knot strength, high temperature resistance and flexibility, and is not suitable for small diameter sewing applications.

[rubber cord / cord]

The continuous glass fiber yarn is impregnated and multi-strand yarn/rope formed by multiple twisting, which is generally used to reinforce rubber products.

[Sign yarn]

A woven fabric of a reinforcing material for a composite material having a different color or composition than the reinforcing yarn. Used to identify the variety, thickness, and distribution of the reinforcement.

Comparison of composite materials industry in China and India

Comparison of composite materials industry in China and India

China and India are the two most populous countries in the world, accounting for 18.9% and 17.6% of the world’s population, respectively. China is the country that produces the most composite materials, but the composites production of India is 10 times less than China.

According to China Fiberglass Industry Association and China Composites Industry Association, China’s composite materials production reached 4.33 million tons in 2014, an increase of 5.6% over 2013.

In this growing trend, the growth rate of thermoplastic composites exceeds that of thermoset composites, following global trends. Thermoplastic composites accounted for only 27.7% of the market in 2010 and reached 37.2% in 2014. In 2014, thermoplastic composites increased by 17.9% compared to 2013, while thermoset composites only increased by 0.4%.

China is the largest producer of glass fiber (glass fiber reinforced materials) for composite materials in the world. In 2014, its output reached 3.08 million tons, an increase of 8.07% over 2013. In 2014, the export volume of China’s glass fiber reinforced materials was 1.29 million tons (up 8.35%), and the import volume was 245,000 tons (up 5.11%), so the actual domestic consumption was 2.03 million tons (up 7.4%). Since the increase in consumption is less than the increase in production, the export volume has increased.

The carbon fiber market situation in China is quite different. Except for four or five “first-class” manufacturers that are of concern to the Chinese government, most other carbon fiber manufacturers cannot produce sufficient quantities of carbon fiber with stable quality. According to the above association, China’s carbon fiber production in 2014 was 3,200 tons, and the amount is estimated to be 15,000 tons.

India began producing composite materials in 1962, reaching 314,000 tons in 2014. This market is far from stable and still faces economic uncertainty.

In 2014, the output of glass fiber reinforced materials in India was 87,000 tons, and the export volume was 11,000 tons and the import volume was 43,000 tons. Therefore, the actual consumption was 119,000 tons. Unsaturated polyester resin production was 225,000 tons, of which 143,000 tons were used for composite materials.

More than 1,200 companies in India are involved in composite materials, which are basically located in southern India. The main manufacturing process for composite materials is hand lay-up, which accounted for 42% in 2014. Other processes such as winding and pultrusion have continued to grow. The number of winding machines has increased five times in five years, slightly over 100, and the number of pultrusion machines has increased four-fold to about 100.

The six largest composite applications of India are transportation, construction and construction, electrical and electronic equipment, infrastructure, chemical anti-corrosion, and wind energy, which in turn account for 19%, 15%, 14%, 13%, 13%, and 12%. Thermoplastic composites account for only 11% in India.

Although not clear yet, the growth potential of composite materials in India is huge. This is reflected in India’s demand for infrastructure, water treatment systems and energy production. The agricultural and marine sectors are also receiving attention. Furthermore, the Indian government wants 30% of all its aerospace and defense equipment to be produced locally.

Type of fiberglass

Type of fiberglass

Glass fiber yarn is one of the main components of glass fiber tube, and the main component of glass fiber yarn is glass fiber. This section will give you a general introduction to the type of glass fiber.

There are many methods for classifying glass fibers. Generally, it can be classified from the aspects of glass raw material composition, monofilament diameter, fiber appearance, production method, and fiber characteristics.

Classified according to the glass raw material composition, mainly used for the classification of continuous glass fibers.

Generally, it is distinguished by different alkali metal oxide contents, and alkali metal oxides generally refer to sodium oxide and potassium oxide. In the glass raw material, it is introduced by a substance such as soda ash, thenardite, feldspar or the like. Alkali metal oxide is one of the main components of ordinary glass, and its main function is to lower the melting point of glass. However, the higher the content of alkali metal oxide in the glass, the lower the chemical stability, electrical insulation properties and strength. Therefore, for different uses of glass fibers , different glass components such as alkali containing are used. Therefore, the alkali content of the glass fiber component is often used as a sign for distinguishing continuous glass fibers for different uses. According to the alkali content in the glass component, the continuous fibers can be classified into the following types.

Alkali-free fiber (commonly known as E glass): R2O content of less than 0.8%, is an aluminumborosilicate component. Its chemical stability, electrical insulation properties and strength are very good. Mainly used as electrical insulation materials, glass fiber reinforced materials and tire cords.

Medium alkali fiber: R2O content is 11.9%-16.4%. It is a kind of soda-calcium silicate component. Because of its high alkali content, it can not be used as electrical insulating material, but its chemical stability and strength are still good. Generally used as latex cloth, woven fabric substrate, acid filter cloth, window screen substrate, etc., it can also be used as a glass fiber reinforced material with less strict requirements on electrical properties and strength. This fiber has a lower cost and is more versatile.

High alkali fiber: a glass component having an R 2 O content of 15% or more. Such as glass fiber drawn from raw materials such as broken flat glass, broken glass, etc., all belong to this category. It can be used as waterproof and moisture-proof materials for battery separators, pipe wrapping cloths and mats.

Special glass fiber: high-strength glass fiber composed of pure magnesium-aluminum-silicon ternary,magnesium-aluminum-silicon,high-strength,high-elastic glass fiber; silicon-aluminum-calcium-magnesium-based chemically resistant glass fiber; aluminum-containing fiber; High silica fiber; quartz fiber.

Classified according to the diameter of the filament

The glass fiber filament is cylindrical, so its thickness can be expressed by diameter. Usually, depending on the diameter range, the drawn glass fibers are divided into several types (the diameter values are in um):

Crude fiber: its filament diameter is generally 30um

Primary fiber: its filament diameter is greater than 20um;

Intermediate fiber: filament diameter 10-20um

Advanced fiber: (also known as textile fiber) has a filament diameter of 3-10um. Glass fibers having a filament diameter of less than 4 um are also referred to as ultrafine fibers.

The different diameters of the filaments not only affect the properties of the fibers, but also affect the production process, production and cost of the fibers. Generally, 5-10 um fiber is used as a textile product, and 10-14 um fiber is generally suitable for roving, non-woven fabric, chopped fiber mat, and the like.

Classified according to fiber appearance

The appearance of the glass fiber, ie its form and length, depends on its mode of production and its use. Can be divided into: continuous fiber (also known as textile fiber): In theory, continuous fiber is an infinite continuous fiber, mainly made by the leakage plate method, after textile processing, can be made into glass yarn, rope, cloth, Belt, roving and other products.

Fixed length fibers: which are limited in length, generally in the range of 300-500 mm, but can sometimes be longer, such as substantially long, messy fibers in the mat. For example, long cotton made by steam blowing, after being broken into yarn, is only a few hundred millimeters in length. Other products such as stick yarn and roving are used for making yarn or mat.

Glass wool: It is also a fixed-length glass fiber with a short fiber, generally less than 150 mm or less. In the form of fluffy tissue, similar to cotton wool, it is also called short cotton, mainly for heat preservation, sound absorption and other purposes. In addition, there are chopped fibers, hollow fibers, glass fiber powders, and fine fibers.

Classified according to fiber characteristics

This is a new type of glass fiber that has some special excellent properties to meet the special requirements. The fiber itself can be roughly divided into: high-strength glass fiber; high-modulus glass fiber; high-temperature resistant glass fiber; alkali-resistant Glass fiber; acid-resistant glass fiber; ordinary glass fiber (refers to alkali-free and medium-alkali glass fiber); optical fiber; low dielectric constant glass fiber; conductive fiber.

Most of the glass fiber yarns in the glass fiber tube are made of alkali-free glass fiber, and their chemical stability, electrical insulation properties and strength are good.

Glass Fiber Market outlook

Fiberglass is the main reinforcing material in the composite industry. In the US fiberglass market, it grew by 4% and reached 2.1 billions dollar at 2017. The market is expected to raise to 31 billion pounds by 2023, with a composite annual growth rate of 3.4%.

The four major areas of fiberglass applications are transport, construction, piping and tanks, accounting for 69% of the total applications. With the development of water and wastewater infrastructure, a growing number of construction facilities, and quick growth in automotive, oil and gas-related operations, it is expected to drive further development of the fiberglass market in 2023 and beyond.

In terms of supply and demand, global fiberglass production capacity reach 11.2 billion pounds, and the current utilization rate is 93%.

Lucintel forecasted that with the further increase of glass fiber suppliers ‘ capacity, the utilization of its production line will fall to about 91% in 2018.For example, Owens Corning has planned to add production to France and India in this year; Jushi and Johns Manville has planned to increase capacity in the United States; Taishan Fiberglass has invested in India; and Sisecam Group has built new factories in Turkey.

As more and more applications appear in different terminal markets, the glass fiber market has been promoted continually. Most Purchasing decisions are still heavily influenced by the price of GFRP components. To further promote the growth and competitive advantage of the fiberglass market, the industry needs to pay attention to the following points:

Lower prices: The industry needs to find ways to reduce the cost of composite components, because it competes with steel, aluminum, and even concrete. There are many innovative opportunities to reduce the cost of its raw materials, labor and energy. For example, in order to be competitive in the price-sensitive reinforced bars market valued 200 billion-dollar, a manufacturer of competitive FRP bars must come up with an innovative technology that uses fiberglass and sand to make FRP bar so that the cost can be reduced by nearly 40%.

Innovative manufacturing Technology: it is needed to develop transformative manufacturing technologies that shorten cycle times and reduce costs. Composites have many innovative opportunities because they provide flexibility in design, material selection, manufacturing and composition.

Stable supply chain: with the growing globalization of many industries such as automobiles, wind power, aerospace electronics and so on, it is needed to invest in the development of global materials, design, tooling and manufacturing supply chains for composite materials. For example, Ford, which manufactures vehicles around the world, hopes that one component supplier can meet its global production needs, is critical to achieving the global supply chain.

Better simulation technology: the market needs to invest in the development of better simulation software for composite parts manufacturing. In the steel industry, there are simulation software programs that can predict parts ‘ tolerances, warp, quality and reliability.

Investing in maintenance and recycling technologies: it is needed to address OEM repair and recovery challenges by developing cost-effective technologies and infrastructure.

To sum up, , the composite industry will have significant opportunities for innovation on the each node of the chain. As the industry becomes the mainstream supplier of many markets, the winners will own the market shares and the losers will be eliminated. Lucintel expects that many new and innovative suppliers will emerge and meet market demand.

A Pair of Hands Made of Fiberglass Can Hold up a Bridge

A special bridge always can catch the eye of tourists. At the beginning of this summer, Vietnam’s Bana hills opened a new tourist attraction, which has attracted the attention of tourists from all over the world as soon as it appeared. The bridge is no different from the ordinary bridge. However, in order to draw more attention, the designer has added some special elements that use a pair of hands to lift a bridge vividly. Many tourists come after the scenic spot was opened.

A Pair of Hands Made of Fiberglass Can Hold up a Bridge

The 150-meter-long gold overpass, held by a pair of giant hands, is located on 1400-meter-high Vietnam’s Bana hills. Somebody wonders if only two hands can hold up the entire bridge. In fact, the giant hand is mostly decorative, and it has no bearing function. There are eight piers under the bridge to support the whole bridge. But if you look at it from a distance, it’s like these giant hands lifted the whole bridge, which is very ornamental.

And these giant hands are made of unusual materials. They look like stones, but they are made of steel mesh frames and fiberglass composites. Did the view of the golden bridge with giant hands catch your eye?

Automotive carbon fiber composite materials will surpass metal materials

Japan and the United States dominate most of the world’s carbon fiber production capacity and control the production of high-end carbon fiber. Toray started in the development and production of PAN-based carbon fiber and is the representative of Japanese carbon fiber production enterprises. At present, the world’s major producers of small tow carbon fiber include Japan Toray, Japan Toho Rayon, and Japan’s Mitsubishi Rayon. Although the US company has less output, it is still technically comparable to the three huge Japanese companies.

Automotive carbon fiber composite materials will surpass metal materials

Before and after the development of carbon fiber by Toray, China began to independently develop carbon fiber. Although China has become the world’s largest producer of fiberglass, unfortunately, after nearly 40 years of development from mid-1970s, China’s carbon fiber industry’s development and production level lags behind, which is unable to compete with the US and Japan companies.

According to estimates, under the same cruising range, the weight of electric vehicles is more than 200~300kg or more than traditional vehicles. Therefore, in order to ensure that the electric vehicle has a good cruising range and affordable cost, the weight of the electric vehicle must be reduced by more than 50%. Among all lightweight materials, carbon fiber is the only advanced material that can reduce the weight of steel parts by 50-60% while providing the same strength.

Automotive carbon fiber composite materials will surpass metal materials

Carbon fiber reinforced composites have excellent physical properties: 30% lighter than aluminum, 50% lighter than steel, and 7 to 9 times stronger than steel. They were first used in high-tech fields such as aerospace, and military. It is recognized that CFRP (carbon fiber reinforced composite material) is the best material to solve the weight loss of new energy vehicles. The use of carbon fiber can make vehicles lose weight by 30% to 60%, It is a new energy source, and the leader of the vehicles’ “slimming revolution”, which plays a key role in vehicles lightweighting.

Throughout the current development of the new energy vehicles industry, it can be found that the wide application of carbon fiber composite materials in new energy vehicles is an inevitable result. it is also an inevitable choice for new energy vehicles companies to carry out automobile production and manufacturing.

Automotive carbon fiber composite materials will surpass metal materials

“Materials can change our lives.” As the slogan of Toray, carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced composites that contribute to energy conservation and greenhouse gas reduction. Toray holds about half of the world’s share of polyacrylonitrile-based carbon fiber. The technicians engaged in the development of Toray have long established carbon fiber-made vehicles and airplanes with the market targets of vehicles, airplanes, and atomic power generation. Toray started with sports and leisure products, and changed the use of carbon fiber for vehicles, airplanes and wind turbines at the same time.

Toray shows: There are two things that can surpass the automotive industry or bring the automotive industry to a higher level in the future: one is artificial intelligence, and the second is carbon fiber lightweight, which uses carbon fiber composites to surpass metal materials.

Analysis For glass fiber market of Year 2018

The composite material industry in the United States showed strong performance in 2017 despite some disruptions to supplies of raw materials, shortage of shipping containers, extended shipping times and the closure of factories along the Gulf Coast and southeastern coast due to the effects of Haval and Weema. In the fourth quarter of 2017, the impact of hurricanes has stabilized and all sectors have shown positive results.

In the composite industry, fiber glass is the main reinforcing material. The glass fiber of US market increased by 4% in 2017, reaching a sale of about 1.134 million tons and a value of 2.1 billion U.S. dollars. It is estimated that by 2023, the market scale will be enlarged and reach 1.4 million tons with a compound annual growth rate of 3.4%.

Transportation, construction, pipelines&storage tanks are the three major areas of fiberglass applications, accounting for 69% of the total. With housing starts in the United States, the positive growth in the automotive and oil and gas sectors, and the growth in water and grey water infrastructure, it is expected that the glass fiber market will be boosted in and after 2023.

In terms of supply and demand, the global glass fiber production capacity in 2017 will exceed 5.08 million tons, with a current utilization rate of 93%. With the increase in capacity of fiberglass suppliers, capacity utilization of glass fiber production lines will drop to about 91% by 2018.

Fiberglass market is constantly evolving, various terminal markets are emerging more and more applications. Purchasing decisions in most markets are continuously to be highly influenced by the price of GFRP components. In order to promote the growth of glass fiber market and competitive advantage, the industry needs to focus on the following points:

Price cuts: because of the competition with steel, aluminum and concrete, the glass fiber industry needs to find ways to reduce the cost of composite parts. There are many innovative opportunities to reduce raw material costs, labor costs, and energy costs for composite parts. For example, to compete with the $ 200 billion market for concrete rebar, glass rebar manufacturers must implement an innovative technology that uses glass fibers and sand to make rebar, reducing the cost of glass rebar by nearly 40 percent.

Innovative Manufacturing Technology: The industry needs to develop transformative manufacturing technologies that reduce cycle times and costs. There are many innovative opportunities for composite materials because of their flexibility in design, material selection, manufacturing and compounding.

Robust Supply Chain: With the increasing globalization in many industries such as automotive, wind energy, aerospace and electronics, the glass fiber industry needs to develop a global supply chain for raw materials, design, molds and manufacturing for composite investment. For example, Ford’s global production of vehicles and the desire to have the same parts supplier for their global production needs are critical to achieving a global footprint in the supply chain.

Better simulation and forecasting techniques: the market needs to invest in better composite parts manufacturing simulation software. In the steel industry, simulation software programs predict component tolerances, warpage, quality and reliability.

Maintenance and Recycling Technology Investments: the industry needs to address the challenges of OEM in repairing and recycling by developing cost-effective technologies and infrastructure.

In short, there will be significant innovation opportunities in every nodes of the composite material industry value chain, shenzhen core-tex will take this chance to provide the industry with more quality products.